Bro, im sorry to hear that. I remember during those years when I would be home on leave, friends and family would tell me, do NOT get out, and do NOT come home, there is NOTHING here for anyone. So I listened and decided to stay and after reading what you posted, its clear that I made the right choice.
The answer to your questions:
1. Yes, that is not a problem. It would be a problem if she was associated with wrong people back where she is from. It would be even a bigger problem if you did not disclose it and the clearance investigation would find it on their own.
2. The maximum age is 40 for civilians. If you have a DD214, you can substract the amount of your active duty years. So if you are 44, and you did a 4 year enlistment, you are really 40.
3, The USBP PT program is allegedly the most challenging in the federal world, apart from USSS special agent. I got out after 11 years Infantry Airborne with x2OIF x1OEF and when I was training up for it, I busted my ass to show up as a PT stud. Once thing that I did not count on was the motherfuckin altitude at the training center (Artesia, NM) which reminded me very much of how it was in Afghanistan in my first few foot patrols. You try hard to breathe but little oxygen makes it in. It sucks for the first couple of weeks but you acclimatized to it. It took out a few of the class but no veterans in the class were dropped cause of PT. I strongly recommend anyone reading this that if you do make thru the hiring process, show up straight up PT stud status cause the altitude will quickly take that edge away fast but your endurance will help thru it.
4, Not entirely sure about that. I was rated 80% VA but the type that allows you to work. They did not care, but they did have an extra couple of steps on the medical entry assesment due to part of that rating being PTSD. All that it entailed was having the applicant being given a CBP mental health assesment report requirement to be filled out by civilian head doctor that would answer questions like "Is this individual able to carry a gun to do his job" (FACEPALM) but yea, its really 100% CYA for them cause they are taking in someone who has PTSD in paper. I was able to get it done on post while I was on my last few days of terminal leave, dont know how much that wouldve cost outside but the applicant would have to have covered that cost, I think.
5. The training was around 14 weeks when I went in and that was the short version because if you can test out at speaking Spanish at the center, you dont have to do like, an extra month. Now they keep both the speakers and non-speakers together for the entire cycle, that way they can help each other with the language coursework. This new training pipeline is around 6 months in duration and it covers a whole metric shit ton of certifications, from like, law, tactical driving, hand to hand, water surviva/combat swimming and my personal favority, covertly flying armed in a domestic flight.
Holla if anyone has more questions.